This book incorporates the refinements in the accounting concepts and practices and reflects on new issues and developments in the field of accounting at the international and national levels. The original structure of the book, i.e. to instruct managers rather than accountants, remains unchanged. The inclusion of a large number of cases is an element of this design. To make the book more contemporaneous some of the cases have been replaced. However, those cases have been retained which we believe provide learning that can be described as timeless. The focus of the book is on how to use a financial statement than on how to prepare one. However to understand fully, one must know how a statement is prepared. Towards this end, the authors have also increased the proportion of content devoted to the mechanics of preparing financial statements.